Main Menu

P.O.Boḍiṅ(Paul Olaf Bodding) ar uniak̕ kạmiko

Rev.P.O.Boḍiṅ do̠ ḍher ho̠ṛgebon baḍae akadea.Enhõ teheń ạt ńam akana uni reak̕ mit̕ bar katha arhõń disạ do̠hṛa o̠co̠et̕bon kana.

Nui mano̠tan ho̠ṛ do̠ Norway disạm kho̠n abo Santal ṭhen dho̠ro̠m po̠rcar mentey he̠c̕lena.Nuiak̕ janam hõ hahaṛa lekage hoe akana. Ac̕ go̠ babaren celehõ gidrạ bako tahẽkana.Banar ge ạḍi dho̠ro̠m ar Iso̠r bo̠to̠rae ho̠ṛkin tahẽkana. Aema bo̠cho̠r gidrạ bako hoyok̕kante sesre Iso̠r ṭhe̠nkin dibena  bãṅma mit̕ṭen hõ  gidrạye hoelen tạkin khan uni gidrạ do̠ Iso̠rak̕ kạmirekin jimạkaea. Hahaṛa leka ńelme Iso̠r nukinak̕ noa ko̠ejõ̠ṅe ańjo̠mke̠t̕ tạkina ar 2Nobembor 1865 hilạk̕ Norway reak̕ Gjevik mit̕ huḍiń nagraha re janamenae. Ẽṅgat apat Iso̠r ạḍikin sarhaokedea ar ạkinak̕ go̠k̕ katha arhõ̠kin disạ ruạṛ keda ar kạṭic̕ kho̠nge uni gidrạ ona lạgit̕ sapṛaoekin eho̠p̕ keda. Gidrạ ac̕tet̕ge ạḍi tạsil hatãṅạnic̕e tahẽkana.Paṛhaore ạḍi tạpis. Ar uni hõ Isor duk̕lạṛic̕ lekageye hara idiyena.Bodding noa reak̕ ac̕tet̕tey olakat̕a –

“My lifework was early destined and in many ways it has been like that of the Prophet Samuel.  As a baby my parents dedicated me to the service to which I was later called. To be a missionary was my first desire in my childhood. My parents had been childless for many years and were distressed about this. They agreed to bring this matter in prayer to the Lord and at the same time made the promise that if they received a son they would offer him to His service. Their thought were especially drawn toward missionary work.”

Enhõ uni do̠ paṛhaok̕re ạdi bese tahẽkante botany reak̕ ḍhere paṛhaokeda ar Ĩṅgreji chaḍa Latin pạrsi hõ ạḍi bese cet̕keda.Uniak̕ asolak̕ paṛhao do tahẽkana “Language and Ethnography”.(scientific discriptions of different races and cultures)Abo Bharot disom hijuk̕ laharege 6 Novembor 1889 hilok̕ Oslorege pasṭor side atãṅkeda. Santalko talare uni do Kerap metak̕me Skrefsrud saheb hoteteye ạgu ocoena.

16 January 1890 re uni do̠ Rampurhaṭre Rẹil Gạdi kho̠n pheḍkate sagaṛte setak̕re Benagạḍiaye seṭerena.Barea sagaṛ Benagaḍiạ kho̠n kol akat̕ tahẽkanako mit̕ṭenre do̠ ac̕e gitic̕ena ar do̠sarak̕re do̠ uniak̕ jiniskoko lade keda setak̕en khan Benagaḍiạ re bo̠lo̠to̠ra onḍenak̕ kuṛi skulren kuri gidrạkoak̕ setak̕ sereń ańjo̠m teye ebhenena ar sagaṛ tẽṅgo ocoket̕ koae pheḍkate ạḍi mõ̠ṅgo̠nkate mit̕ ghạri onkoak̕ ona sereńe ańjo̠m keda. Santali pạrsi reak̕ sebeltet̕ do̠ seṭer to̠ragey cakha ạikạukeda ar pasec̕ goṭa ho̠ṛmo̠re bhijạu utạradea. Benagaḍiạ re berelen to̠rage Skrefsrud saheb do̠ kạmi bhare emadea. Ac̕e tear akat̕ tahẽkan Santali Vocabulary adpura translation kạmiko jo̠to̠e emadea are metadea jãhã tinạk̕ usạram daṛeak̕ noa pạrsi do̠ cedtege hoyok̕ tama. Arhõ noa solhae emadea “Iń okako kạmi ocoet̕meiń menjõṅkan ona judi sạrige purạu sanaet̕me khan oṛak̕re duṛup̕ kate do̠ bãṅ hoyok̕a,onko talarez jạsti kho̠n jạsti so̠mo̠e khemao hoyok̕ tama to̠be anec̕ onkoak̕ bhasam  ceda ar beste onkom bujhạu daṛeakoa.”Ar sạrige Bodding saheb do̠ uniak̕ kathae ańjom keda ar ạḍi usạra santaliye cet̕keda.Kerap saheb ṭhen mit̕ hoṛe tahẽkana Khodo,uni do̠ ho̠ṛ ho̠po̠nko modre calak cạtur ar Santali beste bak̕ḍaic̕.Uniak̕ go̠ṛo̠ Bodding saheb hatao lạgit̕e metadea.Cat̕em mena tayomtekin gate utạren ar nui Khodo ṭhen kho̠n Bodding aema Santali ar santalko babo̠t kathakoe cet̕keda.

No̠nḍe ac̕ak̕ kạmikore lakerok̕ são sãote ac̕ak̕ nij join sasambṛao hõ bae hiṛiń leda.Miss Clara Barathen o̠ko̠e do̠ Bodding ạdi bestey baḍae akade tahẽkan ar Bharo̠t disạm hijuk̕ laharegekin ho̠ro̠k̕ cikhnạ akan tahẽkan, nonḍe Kolkatate 1891 reak̕ December reye hec̕ena ar ńelme Mr. & Mrs. Skrefsrud tạkinak̕ kurumuṭute P.O.Bodding ar Clara Brathen tạkinak̕ bapla do̠ 18 December 1891 hilạk̕ Benagạḍia reak̕ Ebenezer girja oṛak̕ re  Rev.Broerson (Papa sahib)hotete hoyena.Noa bapla tayom P.O.Bodding do̠ nãwã daṛe ar nãwã gateye ńamkedea ac̕ak̕ kạmi lạgit̕.Menkhan likhạ do̠ judạge tahẽkana.Unkin nãwã juri pạri aema din sõṅgete bạkin tahẽdaṛeada.E̠ke̠n 127 din mit̕te tahẽkate 26 April 1892 hilok̕ se̠tak̕ o̠kte reak̕ 9 baja le̠ka Clara do̠ ac̕ren dulạṛiạ jãwãtet̕ak̕ ho̠bo̠rre bo̠ho̠k̕ do̠ho̠ kate jaejug lạgit̕e jạpit̕keda noa Mohulpahaṛi re .Ar nui Clara do̠ nonḍe Mohulphaṛiregeko to̠pa kedea ona to̠pa nit hõ Mohulpahaṛi girjạ oṛak̕ tayomre menak̕ gea.Uni  do̠ Pnemonia ńamledea.

Noa duk Paul Olaf Bodding lạgit̕ sạrige bin sahaok̕ak̕ tahẽkana.Hẽ ac̕tet̕ ãṅgo̠c le̠t̕ geae “Bapla lahare eskargiń tahẽkana menkhan  nit arhõ ḍher eskariń ạikạueda ente mit̕ boge mo̠nan ar napae ayo hoṛak̕ sõṅge cabaen tińte.”Sạrige unkin tala reak̕ ho̠ṛmo̠ reak̕ he̠lme̠l,unkin talare o̠nto̠r reak̕ he̠lme̠l,unkin talare kạmiko reak̕ he̠lme̠l jo̠to̠  do̠ nasenak̕ tege cabaena.Sạrige dukge ạikạuk̕a.

Menkhan Paul Olaf do eṭak̕ kạmi lạgit̕ dhạrtiteye hec̕ lena.Uni do noako hiṛiń kate ac̕ak̕ o̠nto̠r reak̕ bhabna mit̕ṭen nãwã rupe emawada.Uni do̠ ac̕ak̕ kạmire arhõ taogar ar diṛho mo̠nteye dhurạu ruạṛena ente uniak̕ ‘motto’ tahẽkana Santalko jemo̠n akoak̕ go̠ pạrsi Santalite Iso̠r ko orome.

Kạmi idiy tuluc̕ge arhõ 5½ bo̠cho̠r tayo̠m 8 No̠bembo̠r 1897 do̠sar bapla Ingeborg Bahr sãote hoena menkhan arhõ menkhan noa bapla hõ  bãṅ rophalena bana hoṛak̕ hudisjõṅak̕ko begarge tahẽkante ar sesre nuiṭak̕ oṛak̕ hoṛtae do̠ mit̕ṭen muslạ  babahoṛ sãotey oḍok calawena ar nukinak̕ divorce do̠ 1921 salre hoena.Bodding arhõe eskarena menkhan nit do̠e khạtirena ac̕ak̕ sana lekae kạmi daṛeak̕kan tahẽkana.

Dhạrti daṛanre manwa eskar taṛam do̠ bãṅ bogea.Sõṅgete mit̕ṭen ho̠ṛ do̠ menkeam ‘Humsufar’ do̠ jạruṛ gea.Onka le̠kare Missionaryko noako baḍaeket̕ khan nui lạgit̕ ar mit̕goṭen juriko ńamadea.Nui do̠e tahẽkana Dr.Christine Larsen.Nukinak̕ bapla do̠ Bengạḍiạ girjạ oṛak̕re 8 May 1922 re Rev.R Rusenlund ho̠tete hoena.Nui do Dr. e tahẽkante Doctorok̕ge sana kedea.Benagaḍiạrege ac̕ak̕ ho̠ṛ bogeko kạmi  do̠e eho̠p̕ keda.Ar ho̠ṛko po̠rho̠ko ńam idikeda.Bodding saheb nui mano̠tan ayoho̠ṛak̕ o̠nto̠r reak̕ dulạṛ dak̕te ạḍi lekanak̕ bho̠rtey sarbharaoena ar mucạt̕ hạbic̕ mit̕ lekaye kạmi daṛeada.

Bodding saheb do̠ 24 bo̠chor umerre no̠nḍe do̠e he̠c̕lena tho̠ṛa din uniak̕ kạmiko ar uniak̕ beoharko ho̠ṛko onmanket̕ khan rạskạ salak̕ uni do̠ Boḍing ko̠ṛako metaekan tahẽkana,hẽ taenomte do̠ arhõ mano̠t salak̕ ko bahna do̠hṛa kedea Guru Saheb mente ar noatege goṭaye bikạuena.     Nui Bodding saheb do̠ ạḍi jhũkạl kạk̕mi ho̠ṛe tahẽkana.Setak̕     baskeak̕ jo̠m baṛakate uni do̠ ac̕ren barea setae jo̠m ocoet̕kin tahẽkana.Inạ tayo̠m ac̕ak̕ kạmireye dhurạuk̕ kan tahẽkana.Uni do̠ jaoge ac̕ sõṅge bar ho̠ṛ Santal do̠e sõṅgeyet̕kin tahẽkangea.

Uniak̕ eho̠p̕ kạmi tahẽkana Santali baebel oka do̠ Kerap saheb pạhilkho̠n tinạk̕gan co̠e kạmi laha akat̕ tahẽkan ona Santalite to̠rjo̠ma purạu noa Baebel do̠ Ibri pạrsi reak̕ baebel kho̠n to̠rjo̠mak̕kan tahẽkana ona do̠ ko metak̕ kana Benagaria version.Taljhạri version hõ mit̕ṭec̕ tayomteko benao keda ona do̠ Ibri pạrsi kho̠n do̠ bãṅ ona do̠ Ĩṅgrạji pạrsi kho̠nak̕ to̠rjo̠ma tahẽkana.Kerap saheb do̠ Santali dictionary tear reak̕ kurumuṭurey tahẽkana.Mit̕ṭen vocabulary ye tearleda 13000 Santali so̠bdo̠ tahẽkana ona do̠ ạdhurạge tahẽkana ona hõ Bodding e jimạwadea,ma purạume.Uni do̠ hante nhate dãṛã dãṛãtey bujhạukeda noko Santal koak̕ pạrsi do̠ ạḍi ge liṭhur takoa ar onka lekage nokoak̕ ạn ạri se legcarko hõ ạdi so̠ro̠s getakoa menkhane ńelkeda noako do̠ okarege o̠l katedo̠ bạnuk̕anãṅ ar un re mit̕ṭen ạḍi marãṅak̕e goṭawana.Noko ho̠ṛ ho̠po̠nak̕ no̠a ạri cạli ar legcarko o̠l jo̠gao reak̕.Are eho̠p̕ keda mit̕ ṭen marãṅ kạmi oka do̠ o̠ho̠bon jo̠kha tiạk̕ daṛeak̕a.Jãhãe judi Santosh Kumar Soren tearak̕ “Santhalia:Catalouge of Santali Manuscripts” bon ńel lekhan o̠ho̠m pạtiạu ko̠k̕a Bodding ho̠tete nun marãṅ kạmi hoe akana mente.Un o̠kte bãṅ do̠ bijli tahẽkan bãṅ do̠ motor cycle tahẽkan bãṅ do̠ phone tahẽkan onkan o̠ktere ato ato ac̕ren ho̠ṛ kolkate santal koak̕ mimit̕ katha suc̕  sutruc̕ o̠l samṭao ocoet̕ko tahẽkanane ar ac̕ ṭhene do̠ho̠ jarwaet̕ kan tahẽkana.

Uni do̠ Santali so̠bdo̠ beoharre nõ̠ṅka go̠ro̠j tahẽkana taea mit̕ṭen so̠bdo̠ hõ̠ barpe ho̠ṛ ṭhe̠n be̠go̠r kulite bae khạti utạrok̕kan tahẽkana bãṅma ona re ṭhik utạr mane ar beohar do̠ cet̕ hoyok̕ lek kana.Onate uni do̠ ac̕ren 6 ṭi celako mudre mit̕ ho̠ṛ bin o̠lo̠k̕ paṛhaok̕ baḍaeic̕ tahẽkana uni ṭhen kho̠nge pusṭạu utạr aṛãṅe bujhạu ńamet̕ tahẽkana.

Uniak̕ kạmikobon ạribạndhi lekhanbon ńama okaṭak̕ hõ bae bad akada.Santal koak̕ mythology oka do̠ un hạbic̕ eken mocatege hec̕ ạguk̕kan tahẽkan onako o̠l samṭao ke̠da , ho̠ṛ ho̠po̠n tahen tapahen reak̕,jo̠m ńui reak̕ ,rehet̕ ran murgạn reak̕,ojha jan guru reak̕,ḍạn jugin reak̕,bis mantar ko reak̕,aga pujạ reak̕,ar cet̕ bãṅ ńumme onam ńama uniak̕ ona jo̠gao do̠ho̠ akan nạthiko re.Noako nạthi do̠ 11 goṭen section re hạṭińakana ar Oslo reak̕ Universityre nit hõ jo̠gao do̠ho̠ akana.

Mano̠tan Bodding do̠ versatile genious ho̠ṛe tahẽkana,versatile genius mane  ac̕ kho̠n beṛhaete bamberok̕kan  so̠ro̠s utạr ạkil reak̕ khajana se bạndi tahẽkana.

Uniak̕ Santal Medicine and Connected Folklores em ńel lekhan bujhạu tiạk̕ daṛeak̕am uniak̕ botany reak̕ ạkiltet̕.Ona sãote ho̠ṛ ho̠po̠nak̕ rehet̕ ranko  reak̕ mit̕ṭan murại kana.

Sereń salak̕em ńel lekhan uni do̠ Santal ho̠po̠nak̕ 26 lekanak̕ rạṛ jo̠to̠ reak̕ Satff notations ko̠e tear leda.Ac̕ ar sãotenko salak̕ milạukate 33 go̠ṭen Santali girjạ sereńe tear akada o̠nare ac̕ nijte o̠lak̕ko se eṭak̕ pạrsi kho̠n to̠rjo̠ma wak̕ do̠ 8 go̠ṭen menak̕a.Noako  sereń reak̕ rạṛ reak̕ khạndritet̕ salak̕ mit̕ṭen gho̠ṭna bon baḍae lekhan bon bujhạu daṛeak̕a uniak̕ Santali pạrsire tinạk̕ do̠kho̠l tahẽkan taea,Ona do̠ nõṅka leka hoena J Gousdal mit̕ do̠m ackage Sultanabad reak̕ Mo̠nglaband atoteye calaoena ar onḍe Kurchạ Parganawak̕ oṛak̕e bo̠lo̠k̕ kana.Hahaṛage onḍeye ńeleda Kurchạ Pargana do̠ ac̕ erattet̕ak̕ mạ̃ri (enegey go̠c̕ akan) pheḍrey duṛup̕ akan bo̠ho̠k̕ capokate are sereńjõṅ kana  “Sermawak̕ sĩṅghason kho̠nãṅ,Jisuye ńelet̕me kan” (326 No seren)́.Bae rak̕ ho̠mo̠reda menkhan Iso̠r sarhawekan sereńe sereńjõ̠ṅkan.Hudis daṛeak̕abon un jo̠khec̕ noa kho̠n daṛeanak̕ eṭak̕ katha uni jiwi raṛec̕ bae em daṛeaekan tahẽkana.Ado̠ ma bon amdajma mit̕ ho̠ṛak̕ jio̠nre nuiak̕ sereń ar rạṛ ho̠ṛ ho̠po̠nak̕ o̠nto̠r reak̕ okaṭak̕ tare joṭet̕ tiạk̕ daṛeak̕ kana.Noa do̠ Santali pạrsi ar so̠bdo̠ ko salak̕ khạndri baḍae bãṅ tahẽlen khan o̠ho̠ge ho̠e daṛelena.Teheń hõ̠ uniak̕ sereń te Uni Iso̠rgebon sarahaoedekana.

Uniak̕ gam kạhnikom ńel lekhan o̠na reak̕ ‘motif’ te santal so̠maj reak̕ mit̕ṭen hudisjõ̠ṅak̕ bujhạu tiogo̠k̕ kana. Aesops Fables leka ho̠m ńama se̠ Hindi Panctantra leka ho̠m ńama se̠ jatak katha leka ho̠m ńama.Noako hapen dinre chapa so̠do̠rlen khan gidrạko lạgit̕ ạḍi damanak̕ mit̕ṭen khajana tearok̕a.

Boddingak̕ kạmikore oka versatile quality ńelok̕kan onako do̠ noa kana.

1.Story writer

2.Best Translator,nạmuna do̠ Santali Baebelko kana.

3.Botanist(Ente uni do̠ mimit̕ dareko reak̕ boṭanikel ńutume ńam tot̕ akada)

4.Grammerian.A Santali Grammer for Beginners noa do̠ un o̠kte̠ aema nawa nawa missionaries ko hijuk̕kan tahẽkana se no̠ṇḍe̠nko eṭak̕ jạtrenko lạgit̕ biseskaete noa puthi do̠ tearledae.Inạkate garmmer reak̕ aso̠l rupe emawada Materials for Santali Grammer – Part I oka do̠ eken Phonetic salak̕kan,Materials for Santali Grammer –Part II oka do̠ e̠ke̠n Morphological .Noa phonetic ar Morphological re begar do nõṅkatebon bujhạu daṛeak̕a.Mit̕ṭen katha “Ho̠ṛo̠ ho̠ṛo̠ hoṛo ko dipil idikeda”. Noa re O reak̕ aṛãṅ re oka begar n̕amok̕kan ona salak̕.Noa do̠ Phonetic study re paṛaok̕ kana.Arhõ onkage  iń  ạliń ale abo  noako do̠ Morphological metak̕me so̠bdo̠ko benao se syntaxem me̠nte̠, reak̕ ạn ạri.

5.Journalism– Hindite o̠ka Patrakaritako metak̕ kan,Noa reak̕ e̠to̠ho̠p̕ bon ńama “Ho̠ṛ Ho̠po̠nren Peṛa” noa khon ge noa  Santali reak̕ patrakarita pahṭ̣a hõe jak̕ tiạk̕ akada.Tayomte aema ho̠ṛ uniak̕ noa kạmi ko pańja keda.

6.Song writer– one lahareń lạiket̕ sereń puthire uniak̕ ona nạmuna bon ńam daṛeak̕a.Noa chaḍa eṭak̕ sereńko hõe jo̠ṛao akat̕a.

7.Best orator in Santali(Menet̕ tahẽkanako Boḍiṅ sahib do̠ eṭak̕ pạrsi kho̠n Santali pạrsite po̠rcar se galmarao mońjko ańjomtaea) atoren Santal ho̠ṛ hõ.

Boḍiṅ sahebak̕ aso̠l aso̠l kạmiko

1.Articles in Peṛa Hoṛ

2.Kukli Puthi,Benagaḍiạ khon Chapaena 1899

3.Nawa Niạm – 1911,1920,1928 ar 1929 re

4.Mare Niạm – 1914 ar Purạu Baebel 1929.

5.Girjạk̕ dhara -1917

6.Sereń Puthi- 1912,1915,1918,1820,1922

7.50 jubilee – 1917

8.Hoṛ Kạhniko – Benagạḍiạ -1924

Santali ar Ingrạji mesalte translation leka –

1.A Chapter of Santal Folklore,Kristania 1924

2.Santak Folktales I II III,Oslo 1925 – 1929

 

In English

Materials for a Santal Grammer I Mostly Phonetic 1922

Materials for a Santal Grammer II Mostly Morphological 1929

A Santal Grammer for Beginners 1929

Studies in Santal Medicine and Connected Folklores.

A Santal Dictionary I II III IV V Oslo 1028 – 1936

Traditions and Institutions of the Santals

(Mare Hapṛamko reak̕ Katha)

In Norwegian

Missionens nodvendighed og velsingnelse,1904 and 5 others.

Boḍiṅ do̠ ạdi bese hudis lahakeda ho̠ṛ ho̠po̠nak̕ dustur ar hewa ńelkate ar okako ac̕e sapṛao benaolet̕ are jogaolet̕ onako jo̠to̠ do̠ Oslotey onḍenak̕ University te rạkhi jogao lạgit̕e kol laha kada enteye buj tiạk̕let̕ gea nonḍe tahenkhan noako jo̠to̠ do̠ berbado̠k̕a ar ạḍi jothate hudis lahaleda.Enhõ  noa hõe ro̠ṛ oṭo kada oka hilok̕pe lekmanok̕a ạgu ruạṛpe ar kạmire lagaope ar aperen gidrạ do̠ho̠ oṭowakope.Nit abo ṭhen ona daṛe menak̕a khạjuk sana rakap̕abon.

Ac̕ak̕ mucạt̕ dinkore do̠ Santali Dictionary chapa ocoere ḍhere lạgiạ paṛaoena.Pạhil hạṭiń do̠ ac̕ no̠nḍeye tahẽkanrege Oslo kho̠n chapa so̠do̠rena.Inạko din ac̕ak̕ ho̠ṛmo̠ hõ unạk̕ bes bãṅ tahenkan taete ako disạm rurạṛo̠k̕gey go̠ṭakeda.16 April 1934 hilok̕ do̠ noa Bandorjuri rege uni ac̕ak̕ bidạ johare atãṅkeda nonḍe kho̠n calak̕ lạgit̕.

Ar tinre ac̕ak̕ oṛak̕ Mohulpahaṛi kho̠n e oḍok utạrok̕ kana cetan kandha kho̠n ac̕ren pạhil oṛak̕ hoṛtaeak̕ to̠pa sen ti ạwilkateye ro̠ṛkeda “onḍe uniye gitic̕akana’ ar met̕dak̕ pepeṛkak̕entaetey  oḍok calawena.

Oslo seṭerkate uni do̠ Dictionary reak̕ 5th part mane mucạt̕ part chapa ocoyrey dhurạuena.Ona do̠ 1936 re chapa oḍoken khan ac̕ak̕ nạihạr Odense tekin calaoena jirạuk̕ lạgit̕ menkhan ạḍi din ar bae tahẽ daṛeada

Ac̕ak̕ nạihạr re tahen jokhen mit̕ṭdin 25 September 1938 hilok̕ setak̕ daṛan jokhec̕e bhindạṛena ar inạ bhindạṛ rege tikin 2.30 baje do̠ noa dhuṛI dhạrti do̠e bạgiada.Uni Odense regeko to̠pakedea.

Bo̠cho̠r bo̠cho̠r uni ac̕ak̕ janam dinre ńutum leka uniak̕ kathako bon disạ dohṛaeda menkhan uni okae kho̠jlet̕ o̠ko̠r ona sec̕ do̠ bon lahak̕ kana.Teheńak̕ jarwak̕ hõ co̠ uniak̕ baebel uniak̕ sereń puthiko reak̕ dan kange onate onado̠ alo̠bon hiṛińma.

Noa o̠no̠l pasnaoakana:
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •